Date: 2023-02-13 Browse: 17 Form: 本站

2023 Research on charging pile market in Europe and the United States The United States government actively promotes the construction of charging infrastructure.


1. Introduction to the charging pile industry

1.1 Charging is an important way of energy replenishment for electric vehicles

The replenishment mode of new energy vehicles mainly includes electricity change and charging. The power changing mode is to replace the batteries of new energy vehicles at the power changing station. At present, the typical vehicle enterprise is Nio. For Ovaries with fewer vehicle types and relatively single battery system specifications, the power changing mode has certain application prospects. The second is the charging mode, which includes the AC slow charging mode common in household piles and the DC fast charging mode of public piles. The fast charging mode is divided into two routes, one is the high current fast charging route represented by Tesla, the other is the high voltage fast charging route represented by BYD, etc. The fast charging mode is in the process of rapid upgrade and evolution. The charging ratio is being increased from 2C to 4C, and the charging time is being shortened from 30 minutes to 15 minutes. Most Omanufacturers are actively laying out the fast charging technology, which has a broad development prospect.

Charging mode has become a widely used energy replenishment method. At the beginning of the development of electric vehicles, charging mode has become the primary way of replenishing energy by virtue of its advantages of simple technology, convenient use and low cost. The charging mode can be further divided into AC slow charge and DC fast charge. In 1996, the first mass-produced electric vehicle, General EV1, adopted AC charging mode to replenish energy. In China, BYD built the first electric vehicle charging station in Shenzhen headquarters in 2006. In 2008, it built a centralized charging station to meet the demand of 50 electric buses for the Olympic Games, and the charging mode began to develop in China. Foreign Tesla model series electric vehicles have successfully occupied the market, directly leading the way of energy replenishing electric vehicles with charging as the main mode. At present, the vast majority of new energy vehicles supplement electric energy by charging. The charging pile is gradually upgraded from AC slow charge to DC fast charge. Foreign Tesla model series electric cars adopted household AC charging piles when they were launched, and the power was gradually upgraded from 7kW of level-1 to 20kW of level-2. Later, with the continuous improvement of the range of electric vehicles, the market put forward higher demand for the speed of recharge. In 2012, Tesla launched the Supercharge super fast charging technology, which upgraded the charging power from 90kW V1 iteration to 250kW V3, greatly reducing the charging time of electric vehicles. Other electric vehicle manufacturers have also launched their own fast charging technology, and the trend of fast charging upgrade is clear and clear.

Ac slow charge refers to charging the vehicle directly with 220V AC power from the grid. The AC charging device supplies 220V AC power to the vehicle, and the power battery is a high voltage 350V above direct current, so to complete the charging process must be through the vehicle charger (OBC) to achieve DC/AC inverter and boost voltage. Because the space in the car is relatively small, the vehicle charging device can not be too large, the cooling system is difficult to do, so the way of charging through the alternating current pile recharge speed is relatively slow. Common AC slow charging scenes are residential areas, some public places, parking lots and so on. Dc fast charge is fast, but technically more complicated. Different from the AC slow charging requires the on-board charger OBC, DC charging pile with a rectifier, can directly convert the output current into direct current to charge the car battery, and due to the limitation of space, the rectifier power can be made larger, higher charging efficiency, so it is generally installed in the highway along the charging station, a few public places, fast charging stations.

1.2 AC slow charging occupies a relatively high proportion at the present stage, while DC fast charging is expected to continue to increase in future application scenarios and its proportion

The downstream application scenarios of AC slow charging mode are mainly private charging piles in residential areas and some public scenes. Ac slow charging is the most primitive charging mode, which has the lowest requirements for power access. Generally, the required power supply level is 120V and 240V, and the current is generally no more than 32A. It is compatible with single-phase and three-phase power supplies. New energy vehicle enterprises "one car one match" provides a large number of AC slow filling pile used by home charging. The vast majority of new energy vehicles, when sold, will accompany the car to distribute the AC slow charging pile of the household, which can be installed by the owner in the private car spot of their residential community or other distributed charging scenarios. In home charging scenarios, it is easier and faster to use a wall-mounted charging connector when charging a vehicle at home. Wall-mounted charging connector is compatible with single-phase/three-phase power access, and can be installed in residential, office garage or parking lot, indoor and outdoor. Dc fast charging is mainly used in centralized public scenarios. The cost of DC quick charging pile is significantly higher than that of AC slow charging pile. Besides, due to its large power, it has high requirements for access to the power supply, so it is difficult to meet the installation requirements in ordinary private charging scenarios in families. Dc quick-charging piles are common in downtown office areas, high-end business districts and along highways, which require high timeliness and charging efficiency. Centralized charging stations are the main ones.

Centralized charging stations mainly meet the charging needs of operational vehicles. At present, centralized charging station is still the mainstream of the market, which has high requirements on site selection and power capacity. Because the current conventional new energy vehicle charging from 10% to 80% takes 1.5 to 2 hours or even longer, subject to the limitation of charging time, centralized charging stations mainly meet the charging needs of operational vehicles. Destination distributed charging stations effectively complement the charging network. Usually, car owners use the stay time at the destination to charge, and the charging efficiency is not high. The charging power of charging pile is generally 20-30kW, and the users are mainly private car owners. In addition, the distributed charging pile can avoid excessive load on the power grid, and the difficulty of site selection and station construction is low, so it has better promotion conditions. Supercharge station solves the pain point of slow charging speed. Charging anxiety and driving range are the main pain points affecting customers' choice of new energy vehicles. This year, the battery capacity of new cars promoted by automobile enterprises can reach 100kWh, and the battery life is mostly around 500km, some even up to 700km. The battery life is no longer the biggest pain point. Improving the charging speed is an important development direction of new energy vehicles and charging piles in the future. The future application scenarios of DC fast charging are expected to expand continuously. Before 2020, China's new energy vehicles are in the early stage of development. The number of new energy vehicles is not large, the pile is relatively low, the charging infrastructure is not perfect, the popularity of DC fast charging is not high, and the downstream application scenarios are relatively simple, mainly concentrated charging stations, accounting for nearly 100%. It is expected that the downstream application scenarios of DC fast charging will continue to expand in the next few years. Distributed destination small DC fast charging stations will take up 20% of the share, while high-power liquid-cooled supercharging stations in traditional centralized charging stations will also take up 10% of the share.

1.3 Equipment structure and value quantity separation of charging pile

Components of the charging pile mainly include: charging module, AC distribution unit, monitoring unit, surge protection unit, fuse, relay, and external structure including charging gun, high voltage insulation detection board, display screen, etc. The charging module is the core of the charging pile, and the performance of the module directly determines the output capacity of the charging pile.

Ac slow charging pile does not need AC/DC conversion, the internal structure is relatively simple. AC charging pile is to convert 220V AC input from the power grid into AC input available for OBC input of vehicle charger through the core components. Because it does not involve DC/AC conversion, it does not need electronic components such as transformers. The internal structure is relatively simple and the cost is relatively low. Dc quick charging pile has large power and adopts double gun charging, so its structure is more complex. DC fast charge is the conversion of three-phase alternating current through AC/DC module into high-voltage direct current which can directly charge the lithium battery of electric vehicle. The core components are AC/DC converter, APFC, rectifier and other modules. At the same time, due to the need for double gun output, the internal contactor, fuse, control circuit and other usage are significantly increased, the cost is much higher than ordinary AC slow filling pile.

Charging module is the core component of charging pile, which determines the performance index of charging pile. The charging module, also known as the power module, performs AC/DC conversion, DC amplification and isolation inside the charging module, which determines the performance and efficiency of the charging pile and is the core product with a high technical threshold in the charging pile industry. The charging module accounts for the highest proportion of the cost of the whole charging pile, about 41%. The internal structure of charging module is complex, which is an important part affecting the performance of charging pile. The cost accounts for about 41% of the total construction cost of charging pile. The charging module contains many components, mainly including: power devices, capacitors and inductors, sensors and PCB, DSP chips, structural parts, respectively accounted for 12%, 9%, 5%, 3%, 12%.

The core technology barrier of charging module lies in the design level and integration ability of the internal topology structure of the module. The key component of the charging module is the MOS tube switch. When the charging module is working, the three-phase AC power supply becomes the DC input voltage to supply the DC/DC conversion circuit after rectification and filtering. The controller acts on the power switch MOS tube through the driving circuit, so that the DC voltage after rectification and filtering is converted into AC voltage, then the AC voltage is PWM. The AC voltage is isolated by the high frequency transformer, and then rectified and filtered to get the DC pulse, and then charge the battery pack. A single charging module covers more than 1000 core elements, and its topology design directly determines efficiency and performance, so it has a high technical threshold. Fast charging/supercharging piles require charging modules with higher power, which further improves the technical threshold of charging modules. The fast charging capacity of charging pile is mainly realized by high-voltage to output high-power electric energy, which puts forward higher requirements for the quality of charging module and increases the number of use. With the improvement of power level, the difficulty of internal structure design and integration of internal components of charging module is increasing. In order to ensure that the charging module can adapt to the high voltage platform, it is necessary to ensure its safety and reliability, which puts forward new requirements for charging module manufacturers and further improves the technical threshold of charging module.

2. Charging pile market in the United States

2.1 The U.S. government actively promotes the construction of charging infrastructure, and the demand for charging piles experiences rapid growth

Tesla promotes the rapid development of BEVs in the US market, but the construction of charging infrastructure lags behind that of new energy vehicles. With the rapid growth of electric vehicle sales in the United States driven by Tesla, the demand for charging infrastructure of new energy vehicles in the United States is also growing rapidly. However, the supporting construction of public charging piles lags behind significantly, mainly Level-1 and 2 household AC slow charging piles, which are given as donations with cars. By the end of 2021, The number of charging piles for new energy vehicles in the United States is 113,000, while the number of new energy vehicles is 2.020 million, the ratio of vehicles to piles is as high as 17.9, and the supporting construction of charging piles is obviously insufficient.

The Biden administration has promoted the construction of electric vehicle charging infrastructure through the NEVI program. In February 2022, the White House announced on its website that the Biden administration would set new standards for electric vehicle charging networks, establishing a national network consisting of 500,000 charging stations by 2030. The new standards would regulate charging speed, user coverage, interoperability, payment system, pricing and other aspects. The NEVI plan sets higher requirements on the power and quantity of DC quick-charging piles in charging stations, which will greatly promote the development of quick-charging piles in the American market. According to the NEVI plan, EV charging infrastructure must be installed every 50 miles and each charging station must have at least four direct current fast charger (DCFC) ports connected to the charging network and capable of charging at least four EVs simultaneously. The power of each DCFC fast charge port is also specified. The maximum power must reach or exceed 150kW, and the total power of a single station must reach or exceed 600kW, which meets the minimum requirement of 150kW fast charge for four trams at the same time. NEVI will greatly promote the penetration rate of high power DC fast charging pile in the US market.

The number of new energy vehicles continues to increase, and supporting charging piles usher in increased demand. The production and sales of new energy vehicles in the United States are growing rapidly. The sales volume of new energy vehicles in 2021 is 652,000, and it is expected to reach 2.917 million by 2025, with a CAGR of 45.4%, and the number of new energy vehicles will reach 7.90.0 million. Charging piles are an important infrastructure for replenishing energy of new energy vehicles. The increase in the number of new energy vehicles must be synchronized with supporting charging piles to meet the charging demands of car owners. It is estimated that 56,000 supporting charging piles will be needed in 2025, and 185,000 additional charging piles will be needed in 2025, indicating a significant increase in demand. The application scenario of charging piles in the United States is mainly household charging piles, and the demand for AC slow charging piles accounts for a high proportion, and the market size keeps growing. Home and workplace charging is typically done via AC charging, with 83% of U.S. electric vehicle drivers charging at home, a factor expected to drive demand for AC charging as more electric vehicles enter the market on the back of government regulations. It is expected that in 2025, the new demand for slow filling piles will be 120 thousand, and the corresponding market size will be about 160 million US dollars.

The policy promotes the gradual increase of penetration rate of quick-filling pile and the continuous expansion of market space. With the latest "Infrastructure Act" passed by the Congress of the United States, the federal government will increase the investment in charging pile infrastructure. Meanwhile, enterprises represented by Tesla are also accelerating the construction of fast-charging stations in North America, which is expected to gradually increase the penetration rate of fast-charging piles. In the United States, quick-charging piles will account for about 20% in 2021. It is estimated that the permeability of newly added charging piles will reach 35% in 2025, corresponding to about 65,000 newly added quick-charging piles. Based on the price of a single pile of $32,000 per pile, it is estimated that the market space of quick-charging piles in the United States will reach $2.06 billion in 2025. The demand for charging piles in the United States is expected to continue to grow rapidly, and the market space is broad. In 2021, the total scale of the charging pile market in the United States is small, about $140 million. With the demand for supporting construction of charging piles brought by the rapid growth of the number of new energy vehicles, the total scale of the national charging pile market is expected to reach $2.90 billion in 2025, with a CAGR as high as 114%. The market continues to grow rapidly, and the future market space is broad.

2.2 The penetration rate and market size of DC piles in the United States are expected to grow rapidly driven by policies

From the point of view of service objects, American public charging piles occupy the dominant position and maintain rapid growth. According to the data of the Alternative Fuel Data Center of the United States Department of Energy, there are about 115,900 public charging piles in the United States in 2022Q1, with a year-on-year growth of 15.0% and a quarter-on-quarter growth of 1.3%, accounting for about 85% of the total number of charging piles. There were about 19,900 private charging piles, up 4.1 percent year-on-year and 0.7 percent month-on-month. Under the high growth rate, the proportion of public charging piles may further increase in the future. From the point of view of the separate charging mode, the traditional L2 level slow charging pile is still the mainstream in the American public charging pile, and the proportion of DC fast charging pile is increasing rapidly. Charging piles in the United States can be divided into L1, L2 and DC fast charging. Among them, L1 is charged with 120-volt AC plug, and the charging power is about 1~2KW. By 2021, L1 accounts for less than 2% of public charging piles in the United States, and the proportion is decreasing year by year. L2 level charging piles can be charged at 240 V (household) or 208 V (commercial) voltages, and the charging power can reach 19.2KW, but most of them operate at a lower power. By 2021, L2 level accounts for more than 80%. Dc fast filling pile accounted for nearly 20% in 2021, and maintained a strong growth trend with a high growth rate. Under the background of policy support and the increasing penetration rate of medium and large electric vehicles, the ratio is expected to continue to increase.

ChargePoint is leading with a large share of L2 AC charging piles. ChargePoint is one of the first companies in the world to deploy charging piles and tap into the capital market. It focuses on the L2 level charging pile business and provides cloud services to electric vehicle owners, dealers and manufacturers, including charging station location, convenient payment methods and remote monitoring of charging status. The company started its business expansion plan for Europe in 2017, and has been operating in 16 countries in the European market. Worldwide, the company has more than 200,000 active charging piles. By 2022H1, the company has 47,114 L2 AC charging piles in the United States, accounting for 58.2% of the total number of public charging piles in the United States. Tesla has obvious advantages in the field of DC quick charging pile. Tesla is speeding up the construction of supercharging networks around the world. Its V3 supercharging pile, which is being fully promoted, has a peak power of 250KW, on which the long-endurance Model 3 can drive about 120km on a five-minute charge. In 2022, Tesla will further launch the V4 super charging pile design, which is expected to reach 350KW. By 2022H1, the number of Tesla DC quick-charging piles in the United States was 12,580, accounting for 60.6%, ranking first in the United States. In addition to Tesla, Electrify America occupies 15.0% of the total DC quick-charging pile industry in the United States, while Evgo occupies 8.2%, ranking in the second tier.

Under the strong promotion of the policy, the new demand for DC charging piles is expected to exceed 10 billion dollars in the future. According to the NEVI program, highways must be equipped with at least four direct-current fast charging points (DCFC) every 50 miles and capable of charging at least four electric vehicles simultaneously. At present, the total mileage of highways in the United States is 4.17 million miles. If four DC charging piles are built every 50 miles according to the minimum requirements, it is estimated that the policy will directly bring about at least 334,000 DC charging piles. Based on the price of a single pile of $32,000, The policy brings the increment space of fast filling pile market about 10.7 billion dollars. NEVI will vigorously promote the penetration rate of high-power DC quick-charging pile in the US market and greatly stimulate the demand. The United States charging pile enterprise equipment sales revenue is growing rapidly. Under the soaring demand for charging piles in the United States, the revenue of related charging pile equipment enterprises has seen rapid growth in recent years. In the case of ChargePoint and Blink Charging, the main revenue for both companies is from the sale of ChargePoint devices. ChargePoint2021 accounted for 72.14% of the total revenue of $174 million. And Blink Charging pile sales accounted for 73.93%. In the first half of 2022, ChargePoint achieved roughly 83% of 2021 sales revenue of $144 million, and is expected to grow more than 60% for the full year. Blink Charging's charging pile equipment revenue grew from $477,000 in 2018 to an estimated $15.48 million in 2021, growing at a CAGR of 219%, with $16.88 million in revenue in the first half of 2022. Is 109% of the whole year of 2021, it is expected that the charging pile business will maintain a very high growth rate this year.

Blink Charging was founded in 2009 and headquartered in Florida. Its main sources of revenue are the sale of charging posts and charging fees. Blink's self-charging stations account for the second largest share of revenue, accounting for 14.22%. Second, Blink also has income from other businesses, such as advertising and ride-sharing. Blink owners can run, maintain and track various Blink EV charging stations and related billing data by using Blink's software Blink Network. In order to gain more revenue from the charging pile business and reflect Blink's continued competitive advantage in the charging pile market, Blink provides its consumers/partners with a variety of charging equipment and services. Founded in 2007, California-based ChargePoint is one of the world's first charging station operators and one of the first to go public. ChargePoint, which has a market share of more than 75 percent in the United States, has 112,800 charging stations globally and plans to build 2.5 million by 2025. ChargePoint offers a variety of charging ports that match standard SAECombo (BMW, Volkswagen, etc.) in Europe and CHAdeMO (Nissan, etc.) in Japan

3. European charging pile market

3.1 Under the emission reduction target, Europe's charging infrastructure is obviously insufficient. Policy incentives will accelerate the construction of charging piles

The penetration rate of new energy vehicles in Europe has increased rapidly, bringing a large number of charging pile demand. In 2019, the penetration rate of NEVs in the whole of Europe (EU 27 + UK + Norway + Sweden) was only 3.6%, which will increase rapidly to 17.3% by 2021. The penetration rate of BEVs for pure electric vehicles increased from 2.3% in 2019 to 8.7% in 2021, and the penetration rate of PHEVs for plug-in vehicles increased from 1.3% in 2019 to 8.5% in 2021. As the penetration rate of electric vehicles increases rapidly, the demand for supporting charging piles also increases substantially. The distribution of charging infrastructure in Europe is uneven, and the number of charging piles is too small in most countries. In terms of total caliber, the three countries with the most public charging piles in Europe are the Netherlands, Germany and France, with 100,092, 78,729 and 65,700, respectively, while Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia have the least, with 173, 260 and 65,700, respectively. From the point of view of the number of charging piles per 100 kilometers, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany and Portugal have sufficient supporting pile construction, respectively 64.3, 57.9, 25.8, 24.9 /100km, while Lithuania, Greece, Cyprus, Estonia, Poland and Latvia have less than 1 charging pile per 100 kilometers. The distribution of charging infrastructure in Europe is extremely uneven.

Many European countries have introduced incentives for household power stations and commercial power stations, vigorously promoting the construction of charging piles. Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Sweden and other 15 countries have introduced incentives for household and commercial charging stations. The residential charging incentive applies to residents who wish to install private charging stations in their homes, as well as owners and tenants of multi-unit buildings, such as apartments. Commercial charging incentives apply to companies and public entities that want to offer electric vehicle charging as a specialized service, an add-on service or as an employee benefit. Incentives, including tax breaks and grants, are expected to further boost the construction of EV charging stations in Europe.

The penetration rate of fast filling pile in Europe is high and the market space is expanding continuously. In Europe, the new energy vehicle market has developed earlier and the fast charging technology is mature. The penetration rate of fast charging pile is at a relatively high level, and the penetration rate of fast charging pile is as high as 51% in 2021. It is expected that in 2025, the permeability of quick-charging piles will continue to rise to 61%, corresponding to the demand of about 213,000 new quick-charging piles. Based on the price of 32,000 per pile, it is estimated that the market space of quick-charging piles in Europe will reach $6.08 billion in 2025. The accelerated construction of charging infrastructure in Europe promoted by the policy will greatly drive the demand for charging piles. Under the "Fit for 55 Package" for Europe, the European Commission has asked member states to speed up the construction of infrastructure for new energy vehicles, requiring member states to ensure that major roads have one electric vehicle charging station every 60 kilometers. According to a joint report by Ernst & Young and the European Electricity Industry Trade Association, 130 million electric vehicles will be on the road in Europe by 2035, future infrastructure expansion will cost about $62 billion, and another $72 billion will be needed to install 56 million household charging points.

Europe needs to increase the investment and construction speed of supporting charging piles. In 2021, the number of charging piles in Europe is about 442,000, with a total market increase of about 680 million dollars. It is estimated that the total scale of European charging pile market is expected to reach 5.3 billion US dollars in 2025, with a relatively high growth rate and broad market space.

3.2 European charging pile enterprises are diversified with increasing investment

Different countries in Europe have different levels of charging pile construction, and most of them are obviously insufficient. Europe consists of 44 countries and regions. Different countries have different levels of development of new energy vehicles and different scales of charging pile construction. In terms of total caliber, the three countries with the most public charging piles in Europe are the Netherlands, Germany and France, with 100,092, 78,729 and 65,700, respectively, while Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia have the least, with 173, 260 and 65,700, respectively. From the point of view of the number of charging piles per 100 kilometers, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany and Portugal have sufficient supporting pile construction, respectively 64.3, 57.9, 25.8, 24.9 /100km, while Lithuania, Greece, Cyprus, Estonia, Poland and Latvia have less than 1 charging pile per 100 kilometers. Europe's charging infrastructure is unevenly distributed.

European new energy vehicle charging pile industry chain market participants are highly diversified. The main market of new energy vehicles in Europe is Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands and other countries. The charging pile market participants in different countries are different, including the main body of charging station construction, charging pile equipment manufacturers, equipment sales and installation providers, power station operators CPO, etc. From the main body of power station construction, it can be divided into three categories: 1) Energy companies: new energy vehicles to replace traditional fuel vehicles, energy companies to accelerate the transformation, the layout of new energy vehicles "gas station" - charging pile, mainly including Shell Shell, BP, Austria Oil and gas company; 2) Main engine factory: After launching new energy vehicles, major traditional automobile enterprises in Europe also accelerated the construction of supporting charging stations, mainly including Tesla, BMW, Volkswagen, Daimler, Renault-Nissan and other automobile enterprises; 3) Electric power companies: If the owners of new energy are electric vehicles, they need a large amount of power supply for energy supplement. Power providers of various countries extend to the field of terminal application charging stations, including ENGIE of France, Innogy of Italy and E.ON of Germany.

Major European charging pile equipment enterprises:

ABB: Headquartered in Switzerland, ABB has sold more than 525,000 charging piles in 85 markets as of 2021, including 25,000 DC fast charging piles and 500,000 AC slow charging piles. In 2022, ABB Electric Vehicles announced that it will continue to expand its production scale with a new production site in Columbia, South Carolina, USA. The new plant will be able to produce up to 10,000 charging piles per year with a power range of 20kW-180kW, mainly for use in the public charging pile sector. ABB has installed more than 17,000 charging points in Europe and plans to increase its investment in the next few years. ABB EVs also announced in July 2022 the establishment of a training center in Sugar Land, Texas, and a research and development facility in Southern California. Meanwhile, the company acquired a controlling stake in InCharge Energy, a commercial charging infrastructure solution company for electric vehicles, and invested in ChargeLab, a supplier of charging software for electric vehicles, expanding ABB's smart and connected electric vehicle offerings.

Siemens: In 2010, it started to get involved in the electric vehicle charging industry and launched a series of electric vehicle charging piles, including wall-mounted household AC slow charging piles, public and commercial DC fast charging piles, etc. The company aims to install more than 1 million charging stations in the United States alone by 2025, while also expanding its network in other countries around the world, including remote parts of Africa. Siemens, which operates in the U.S. under its VersiCharge sub-brand, plans to build a new plant in the U.S. to provide charging solutions for buses, trucks and heavy-duty electric vehicles, and to produce more than 1 million charging points in the U.S. over the next four years, mainly Level2 AC charging points. In the field of DC fast charging, the company produces DC fast charging piles through the Sicharge brand. Sicharge solutions provide charging capacity from 160-300kW in a single device, with charging efficiency up to 96%.

Schneider: The company started to enter the electric vehicle charging industry in 2014, and its products include DC quick charging piles, parking lot charging piles, wall mounted charging piles, residential charging piles, and charging accessories such as charging cables and adapters. Together with ChargePoint, the company has built a large number of charging stations across Europe, spending over 28 billion euros in 2021 alone.

BP: BP has diversified its oil and gas investments with the acquisition of Chargemaster, one of the most important manufacturing giants in the electric vehicle charging industry, in 2018 to develop and build a large number of electric vehicle charging systems using its extensive infrastructure and network across Europe. Since the acquisition of Chargemaster, BP has increased the number of charging points it has installed from 45,000 to 174,000, with an average of more than 2,000 charging posts installed each month.

Shell Shell: With more than 275,000 public charging stations in Europe, Shell Charging Solutions is a strong supplier of electric vehicle charging infrastructure in the European market. The company provides on-site electric charging points and has installed around 100 electric charging points across the UK, with plans to deploy more than 5,000 charging points across the UK by 2025.

EVBox: EVBox, a Netherlands-based manufacturer of charging equipment that conducts most of its business in European countries, is the leading manufacturer of electric vehicle charging stations in Europe, with more than 20,000 corporate subscribers and more than 350,000 electric vehicle charging stations worldwide. The company was acquired by French power transmission company ENGIE in 2017 and has rapidly expanded into different markets to expand its sales network. With the acquisition of EVTronic in 2018, EVBox accelerated its development of DC charging technology as the latest EVBox Troniq Modular, a DC fast-charging pile, reached a maximum power of 240kW. EVBox currently has more than 10,000 DC quick-charge piles in Europe.

Webasto: The Group was founded in 1901 as a manufacturer of home appliances, gradually advancing its manufacturing capabilities over the years and dabbling in electric vehicle charging station manufacturing. With its significant investment in research and development, Webasto has developed a series of fast charging piles to meet EV charging requirements in various categories, and through the acquisition of AeroVironment Efficient Energy Systems (EES), it has enhanced its ability to effectively develop innovative charging solutions for a large number of EV users in Europe and globally. The company sells electric vehicle charging cables directly to hybrid and electric vehicle manufacturers in North America, and its market share is expected to jump to more than 40% in 2022, with 400,000 electric vehicle charging posts sold.

Tritium: Founded in 2001 in Australia, Tritium is one of the world's largest manufacturers of DC fast charging devices. The company has two series of RT and PK charging piles, the power range covers 50-350kW. The company has sold more than 6,700 DC quick-charging piles, accounting for 20% of the European market and 16% of the US market. The company announced in February 2022 that it would build a second plant in Tennessee, capable of producing 30,000 electric vehicle charging points per year.

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